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Classicists sometimes refer to the veneration of Isis, or of certain other deities who were introduced to the Greco-Roman world, as "religions" because they were more distinct from the culture around them than the cults of Greek or Roman gods.
By the time of the New Kingdom it had weakened to a glottal stop sound, and the t at the end of words had disappeared from speech, so in the New Kingdom the pronunciation of Isis's name was similar to Usa.
Forms of her name in other languages all descend from this pronunciation. Jitse Dijkstra has argued that Procopius's account of the temple closure is inaccurate and that regular religious activity there ceased shortly after the last date inscribed at the temple, in or CE.
Josephus , a Roman-Jewish historian who gives the most detailed account of the expulsion, says the Egyptian cults were targeted because of a scandal in which a man posed as Anubis, with the help of Isis's priests, in order to seduce a Roman noblewoman.
She was largely conflated with Isis in Plutarch's time, and he says the statue is of "Athena [Neith], whom [the Egyptians] consider to be Isis".
Proclus' version of the quotation says "no one has ever lifted my veil," implying that the goddess is virginal. Originally, the form of Artemis that was worshipped at Ephesus was depicted with round protuberances on her chest that came to be interpreted as breasts.
Early modern artists drew Isis in this form because Macrobius claimed that both Isis and Artemis were depicted this way. Adler, Margot Beacon Press.
Alvar, Jaime [Spanish edition ]. Translated and edited by Richard Gordon. Andrews, Carol A. In Redford, Donald B.
The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. Assmann, Jan Harvard University Press. Assmann, Jan [German edition ].
The Search for God in Ancient Egypt. Translated by David Lorton. Cornell University Press. Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt.
Baines, John In Loprieno, Antonio ed. Ancient Egyptian Literature: History and Forms. Cambridge University Press. Belayche, Nicole Benko, Stephen Bianchi, Robert S.
Bulletin of the Egyptological Seminar. Nile into Tiber: Egypt in the Roman World. Bodel, John Household and Family Religion in Antiquity.
Blackwell Publishing. History of Religions. Bolman, Elizabeth In Vassilaki, Maria ed. Ashgate Publishing.
Bommas, Martin In Riggs, Christina ed. The Oxford Handbook of Roman Egypt. Bowden, Hugh Mystery Cults of the Ancient World. Princeton University Press.
Bremmer, Jan N. Initiation into the Mysteries of the Ancient World. Walter de Gruyter. Bricault, Laurent In Bricault, Laurent ed.
Atlas de la diffusion des cultes isiaques in French. Diffusion de Boccard. Bricault, Laurent; Versluys, Miguel John Power, Politics and the Cults of Isis.
Burkert, Walter Ancient Mystery Cults. Cooney, Kathlyn M. December Near Eastern Archaeology. Cruz-Uribe, Eugene Honi soit qui mal y pense: Studien zum pharaonischen, griechisch-römischen und spätantiken Ägypten zu Ehren von Heinz-Josef Thissen.
Delia, Diana Studies Dedicated to the Memory of Jan Quaegebeur. Dijkstra, Jitse H. Philae and the End of Ancient Egyptian Religion.
Donalson, Malcolm Drew The Edwin Mellen Press. Forrest, M. Isidora Llewellyn Worldwide. Frankfort, Henri [First edition ]. University of Chicago Press.
Frankfurter, David Religion in Roman Egypt: Assimilation and Resistance. Antike Mythen: Medien, Transformationen und Konstruktionen.
Gasparini, Valentino Franz Steiner Verlag. Griffiths, J. Gwyn The Conflict of Horus and Seth. Liverpool University Press.
Gwyn, ed. Plutarch's De Iside et Osiride. University of Wales Press. Apuleius, the Isis-book Metamorphoses, book XI.
The Origins of Osiris and His Cult. Hadot, Pierre [French edition ]. Translated by Michael Chase. Haage, Bernard D.
In Hanegraaff, Wouter J. Hanson, J. Arthur, ed. Hart, George Hays, Harold M. Wendrich, Willeke ed. Retrieved 10 December Heyob, Sharon Kelly Higgins, Sabrina Journal of the Canadian Society for Coptic Studies.
Hollis, Susan Tower Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections. Hornung, Erik [German edition ]. Humbert, Jean-Marcel Hutton, Ronald Khazan, Olga 22 September The Atlantic.
Kockelmann, Holger Kraemer, Ross Shepard Kuhlmann, Klaus P. Lahelma, Antti; Fiema, Zbigniew T. Temenos: Nordic Journal of Comparative Religion.
Legras, Bernard Lesko, Barbara S. The Great Goddesses of Egypt. University of Oklahoma Press. Ma, John Macpherson, Jay Mathews, Thomas F.
McClain, Brett McGuckin, John In Maunder, Chris ed. The Origins of the Cult of the Virgin Mary. Burns and Oates.
Daily Life of the Egyptian Gods. Translated by G. Meyer, Marvin In Meyer, Marvin; Smith, Richard eds. Morkot, Robert G. In Fisher, Marjorie M. Ancient Nubia: African Kingdoms on the Nile.
The American University in Cairo Press. Münster, Maria Verlag Bruno Hessling. Naerebout, Frederick Is It an Isis Temple?
And So What? Orlin, Eric M. Pachis, Panayotis Barbounakis Publications. Pakkanen, Petra Foundation of the Finnish Institute at Athens.
Pfeiffer, Stephan Pinch, Geraldine [First edition ]. Pinch, Geraldine Magic in Ancient Egypt, Revised Edition.
Plantzos, Dimitris Quack, Joachim Friedrich In Gasparini, Valentino; Veymiers, Richard eds. Quentin, Florence Albin Michel. Renberg, Gil H.
Rilly, Claude; de Vogt, Alex The Meroitic Language and Writing System. In art , originally Isis was pictured as a woman wearing a headdress in the shape of a throne, sometimes holding a lotus, as a sycamore tree.
After her assimilation of Hathor, Isis was often symbolised by a cow, or a cow's head, or, in the most common form, a woman with the horns of a cow on her head, with the sun disc of Horus between them.
Usually, she was depicted with her son, the great god Horus, with a crown and a vulture , and sometimes as a kite flying above Osiris's body.
In the Book of the Dead Isis was described as She who gives birth to heaven and earth, knows the orphan, knows the widow, seeks justice for the poor, and shelter for the weak.
In late times, due to her name, and her associations, she was often connected to the Semitic goddess Astarte. Also, during the period of Greek dominance, due to her attributes as a protector, and mother, and the lusty aspect originally from Hathor, she was made the patron goddess of sailors.
The cult of Isis rose to prominence in the Hellenistic world, beginning in the last centuries BC , until it was eventually banned by the Christians in the 6th century.
Despite the Isis mystery cult 's growing popularity, there is evidence to suggest that the Isis mysteries were not altogether welcomed by the ruling classes in Rome.
Her rites were considered by the princeps Augustus to be "pornographic" and capable of destroying the Roman moral fibre.
Tacitus writes that after Julius Caesar 's assassination, a temple in honour of Isis had been decreed; Augustus suspended this, and tried to turn Romans back to the Roman gods who were closely associated with the state.
Eventually the Roman emperor Caligula abandoned the Augustan wariness towards Oriental cults, and it was in his reign that the Isiac festival was established in Rome.
According to Josephus , Caligula himself donned female garb and took part in the mysteries he instituted, and Isis acquired in the Hellenistic age a "new rank as a leading goddess of the Mediterranean world.
Roman perspectives on cult were syncretic , seeing in a new deity merely local aspects of a familiar one.
Among these names of Roman Isis, Queen of Heaven is outstanding for its long and continuous history. Some scholars argue that aspects of Isis worship have influenced the practices of some Christians in regards to the Virgin Mary , and especially her relationship with her son, Horus.
There is a strong resemblance to the depiction of the seated Isis holding or suckling the child Horus and the seated Mary and the baby Jesus.
It has been suggested by these scholars that the reason Isis worship abruptly ends, despite the vast number of its adherents, is due to her having been identified as Mary, and her temples having been merely renamed in consequence.
If this is true then Isis is still worshipped today, and has been for at least years, and if it is not, then there has still been a recent revival of explicitly Isis based worship, among neopagans and feminists who are attracted by the matriarchal notions of goddess worship.
Isis is also the name of a Massachusetts maternity centre. Sign In Don't have an account? Isis depicted by Jeff Dahl. Isis Greek corruption; the Egyptian is Aset was originally a goddess from Nubia , and was adopted into Egyptian belief very early.
He saileth over heaven and never resteth, and on the morrow his vigour is stablished as before; having become old [to-day], he becometh young again to-morrow.
He mastereth the bounds of eternity, he goeth roundabout heaven, and entereth into the Tuat to illumine the two lands which he hath created.
When the divine or mighty God, moulded himself, the heavens and the earth were made by his. The literature relating to the fragment of the Sallier papyrus recording this fact is given by Wiedemann, Aegyptische Geschichte , p.
He is the primeval water which floweth forth in its season to make to live all that cometh forth upon his potter's wheel. He is the lord of time and he traverseth eternity; he is the aged one who reneweth his youth he hath multitudes of eyes and myriads of ears; his rays are the guides of millions of men he is the lord of life and giveth unto those who love him the whole earth, and they are under the protection of his face.
When he goeth forth he worketh unopposed, and no man can make of none effect that which he hath done. His name is gracious, and the love of him is sweet; and at the dawn all people make supplication unto him through his mighty power and terrible strength, and every god lieth in fear of him.
He is the young bull that destroyeth the wicked, and his strong arm fighteth against his foes. Through him did the earth come into being in the beginning.
He is the Soul which shineth through his divine eyes, he is the Being endowed with power and the maker of all that hath come into being, and he ordered the world, and he cannot be known.
He is the King who maketh kings to reign, and he directeth the world in his course; gods and goddesses bow down in adoration before his Soul by reason of the awful terror which belongeth unto him.
He hath gone before and hath stablished all that cometh after him, and he made the universe in the beginning by his secret counsels.
He is the Being who cannot be known, and he is more hidden than all the gods. He maketh the Disk to be his vicar, and he himself cannot be known, and he hideth himself from that which cometh forth from him.
He is a bright flame of fire, mighty in splendours, he can be seen only in the form in which he showeth himself, and he can be gazed upon only when he manifesteth himself, and that which is in him cannot be understood.
At break of day all peoples make supplication unto him, and when he riseth with hues of orange and saffron among the company of the gods he becometh the greatly desired one of every god.
The god Nu appeareth with the breath of the north wind in this hidden god who maketh for untold millions of men the decrees which abide for ever; his decrees.
He giveth long life and multiplieth the years of those who are favoured by him, he is the gracious protector of him whom he setteth in his heart, and he is the fashioner of eternity and everlastingness.
He is the king of the North and of the South, Amen-Ra, king of the gods, the lord of heaven, and of earth and of the waters and of the mountains, with whose coming into being the earth began its existence, the mighty one, more princely than all the gods of the first company thereof.
With reference to the origin of the gods of the Egyptians much useful information may be derived from the pyramid texts.
From them it would seem that, in the earliest times, the Egyptians had tried to think out and explain to themselves the origin of their gods and of their groupings.
According to M. Maspero they reduced everything to one kind of primeval matter which they believed contained everything in embryo; this matter was water, Nu, which they deified, and everything which arose therefrom was a god.
The priests of Annu at a very early period grouped together the nine greatest gods of Egypt, forming what is called the paut neteru or "company of the gods," or as it is written in the pyramid texts, paut aat , "the great company of gods"; the texts also show that there was a second group of nine gods called paut net'eset or "lesser company of the gods"; and a third group of nine gods is also known.
When all three pauts of gods are addressed they appear as. We should naturally expect Ra to stand at the head of the great paut of the gods; but it must be remembered that the chief local god of Annu was Tmu, and, as the priests of that city revised and edited the pyramid texts known to us, they naturally substituted their own form of the god Ra, or at best united him with Ra, and called him Tmu-Ra.
In the primeval matter, or water, lived the god Tmu, and when he rose for the first time, in the form of the sun, he created the world.
Here at once we have Tmu assimilated with Nu. A curious passage in the pyramid of Pepi I. The first act of Tmu was to create from his own body the god Shu and the goddess Tefnut; and afterwards Seb the earth and Nut the sky came into being.
These were followed by Osiris and Isis, Set and Nephthys. Brugsch's version of the origin of the gods as put forth in his last work on the subject is somewhat different.
According to him there was in the beginning neither heaven nor earth, and nothing existed except a boundless primeval mass of water which was shrouded in darkness and which contained within itself the germs or beginnings, male and female, of everything which was to be in the future world.
The divine primeval spirit which formed an essential part of the primeval matter felt within itself the desire to begin the work of creation, and its word woke to life the world, the form and shape of which it had already depicted to itself.
The first act of creation began with the formation of an egg out of the primeval water, from which broke forth Ra, the immediate cause of all life upon earth.
The almighty power of the divine spirit embodied itself in its most brilliant form in the rising sun.
When the inert mass of primeval matter felt the desire of the primeval spirit to begin the work of creation, it began to move, and the creatures which were to constitute the future world were formed.
Under the influence of Thoth, or that form of the divine intelligence which created the world by a word, eight elements, four male and four female, arose out of the primeval Nu , which possessed the properties of the male and female.
These eight elements were called Nu and Nut, Heh and Hehet, Kek and Keket, and Enen and Enenet, or Khemennu, the "Eight," and they were considered as primeval fathers and mothers.
Khnemu made the egg of the sun, and Ptah gave to the god of light a finished body. In a late copy of a work entitled the "Book of knowing the evolutions of Ra, the god Neb-er-tcher, the "lord of the company of the gods," records the story of the creation and of the birth of the gods"I am he who evolved himself under the form of the god Khepera, I, the evolver of the evolutions evolved myself, the evolver of all evolutions, after many evolutions and developments which came forth from my mouth.
I formed them out of the inert mass of watery matter, I found no place whereon to stand. I was alone, and the gods Shu and Tefnut had not gone forth from me; there existed.